AKLIMATISASI DINI MASSA PROTALUS TUMBUHAN PAKU BAHAN OBAT (Cibotium barometz (L.) J. Sm.) HASIL KULTUR SPORA IN VITRO

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Abstract


Pakis emas, Cibotium barometz (L.) J. Sm (Cibotiaceae), merupakan salah satu komoditi ekspor penting untuk bahan obat tradisional maupun modern. Populasi C. barometz di beberapa negara telah menurun secara cepat karena eksploitasi berlebihan. Oleh karena itu jenis ini telah dimasukkan dalam Appendix II CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species) sejak tahun 1976. Pusat Konservasi Tumbuhan–Kebun Raya berusaha keras untuk mengawetkannya secara situ dan telah memulai memperbanyak jenis ini melalui kultur spora secara in vitro.  Di dalam kondisi in vitro, pembentukan sporofit C. barometz dari kultur spora  membutuhkan waktu cukup lama. Untuk mempercepat pembentukan sporofit maka kultur yang masih berupa massa protalus (gametofit) yang belum melahirkan sporofit dicoba untuk diaklimatisasi. Percobaan aklimatisasi dilakukan dalam 2 tahap.  Pada tahap pertama, massa protalus berumur 8 bulan setelah semai diaklimatisasi pada 14 jenis media aklimatisasi  dalam kotak plastik tembus cahaya.  Pada percobaan tahap kedua, massa protalus berumur 15 bulan setelah semai diaklimatisasi pada 4 jenis media yang terbaik dari percobaan pertama, yaitu: (1) cacahan akar pakis Cyathea contaminans (APC); (2) APC: arang sekam padi (ASP) (1:1); (3) APC : cocopeat (CP) (1:1) dan (4) APC : ASP : CP (1:1:1), dalam sungkup kotak plastik bertutup plastik tembus cahaya. Hasil percobaan kedua menunjukkan bahwa media terbaik untuk aklimatisasi adalah media campuran cacahan akar pakis Cyathea contaminans, arang sekam padi dan cocopeat (1:1:1).  Persentase massa protalus yang tumbuh dan berkembang pada media campuran ketiga bahan tersebut mencapai 80% dengan jumlah total sporofit yang terbentuk sebanyak 574.


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14203/bkr.v19i2.183

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