PERSILANGAN INTERSPESIFIK Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. DENGAN Ipomoea trifida (H.B.K.) G. Don. BERUMBI ASAL CITATAH JAWA BARAT

Tia Setiawati, Agung Karuniawan, Titin Supriatun, Karyono Karyono Viewed 1280 times, Downloaded 1257 times

Abstract


Ipomoea trifida merupakan kerabat liar ubi jalar (I. batatas) yang sangat berpotensi sebagai sumber gen dalam pemuliaan untuk memperbaiki karakter daya hasil, kadar bahan kering, pati, protein, ketahanan terhadap hama, dan penyakit tertentu. Persilangan interspesifik merupakan salah satu upaya untuk meningkatkan keragaman genetik dalam program pemuliaan tanaman, sehingga kajian mengenai persilangan interspesifik antara I. batatas dengan I. trifida menjadi sangat penting dilakukan. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengetahui tingkat kompatibilitas persilangan interspesifik Ipomoea batatas dengan kerabat liarnya I. trifida berumbi. Tetua betina yang digunakan adalah dua aksesi I. batatas yaitu aksesi 206 (cv. Cilembu) dan aksesi 217 (cv. eks-Jepang), sedangkan sebagai tetua jantan digunakan I. trifida berumbi aksesi  99 asal Citatah, Jawa Barat. Persilangan dilakukan pagi hari setelah dilakukan emaskulasi pada kuncup bunga sehari sebelumnya. Pengamatan dilakukan 25 hari setelah persilangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa persilangan interspesifik I. batatas tetraploid (2n=4x=60) aksesi 206  (cv. Cilembu) dan aksesi 217 (eks Jepang) dengan kerabat liar I. trifida diploid (2n=2x=30) aksesi 99, memiliki tingkat keberhasilan yang rendah dengan persentase daya silang berturut-turut 6,67 % dan 9,76 % untuk kombinasi persilangan 206 x 99 dan 217 x 99; tingkat keguguran buah mencapai 93,33% dan 90,24%; jumlah biji yang dihasilkan sebanyak 12 dan 35 butir dengan daya kecambah berturut-turut 25% dan 17,14%. Hasil analisis kromosom F1 menunjukkan semua tanaman F1 bersifat triploid dengan jumlah kromosom 45 (2n=3x=45).


Keywords


level persilangan rendah; kerabat liar; kompatibilitas persilangan spesifik; ubi jalar

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14203/bkr.v19i1.112

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