HIGHLAND SPECIES AND TEMPERATURE REQUIREMENT FOR GERMINATION: A CASE FROM TWO ENDEMIC PAPUAN Pittosporum (PITTOSPORACEAE) SPECIES

Annisa Satyanti, Farid Kuswantoro, Eko Susanto, Trisno Utomo, Mahmudin Mahmudin, Izu Andry Fijridiyanto Viewed 1323 times, Downloaded 315 times

Abstract


Climate change, including warming and drying, is currently the biggest challenge for plant regeneration. We conducted two experiments on how temperature affected the germination of Pittosporum pullifolium and P. spicessens, both endemic to Central Papua highlands. P. pullifolium habitat temperature at night could reach 8°C whereas P. spicessens habitat temperature ranged from 19°C early in the morning up to 26°C at midday. The first experiment was to understand the effect of chilling on P. pullifolium germination initiation. Our study showed that P. pullifolium was dependent on cold stratification for its germination. Without cold stratification the germination was absent even though the temperature range of sowing environment is at ca. 13–26°C (Cibodas Botanic Gardens). With a cold stratification at 6–8°C (constant) for more than a month, germination of P. pullifolium occurred, with better germination rate under a light. Subsequently we carried out extended cold stratification for a month and interestingly, the germination still occurred but now it is better under dark condition. For P. spicessens, the germination at its habitat temperature range (Wamena) and in the warmer environment (Bogor Botanic Gardens), both occurred at more than two weeks after sowing.


Keywords


alpine seed germination; cold stratification; Pittosporum pullifolium; Pittosporum spicessens; seed ecology

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adler, P.B., J. HilleRisLambers. 2008. The Influence of climate and species composition on the population dynamics of ten prairie forbs. Ecology 89 (11): 3049–3060. 10.1890/07-1569.1

Baskin, C.C. and J.M. Baskin. 2001. Seeds ecology, biogeography and evolution of germination and germination. Academic Press, London UK, pp.666.

Giménez–Benavides L., A. Escudero and F. Pérez–Garcia. 2005. Seed germination of high mountain Mediterranean species: altitudinal, interpopulation and interannual variability. Ecological Research 20 (4): 433–444. 10.1007/s11284-005-0059-4

Hedhly A., J.I. Hormaza, M. Herrero. 2009. Global warming and sexual plant reproduction. Trends in Plant Science 14 (1):30–36. 10.1016/j.tplants.2008.11.001

IPCC. 2007. Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change In: Solomon S, Qin, D., Manning, M., Chen, Z., Marquis, M., Averyt, K.B., Tignor, M., Miller, H.L., ed. Cambridge, UK and New York, USA: Cambridge University Press.

Johns, R.J., P.J. Edwards, T.M.A Utteridge and H.C.F. Hopkins. 2006. A guide to the alpine and subalpine flora of Mount Jaya. Kew Publishing. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Kaye, T.N. 1997. Seed dormancy in high elevation plants: Implications for ecology and restoration. In: Kaye, T.N., A. Liston, R.M. Love, D.L. Luoma, R.J. Meinke, M.V. Wilson, eds. Conservation and Management of Native Plants and Fungi. Native Plant Society of Oregon, Corvallis, pp 115–120.

Kochanek, J., Y.M. Buckley, R.J. Probert, S.W. Adkins and K.J. Steadman. 2010. Pre–zygotic parental environment modulates seed longevity. Austral Ecology 35 (7): 837–848. 10.1111/j.1442-9993.2010.02118.x

Martyn, A.J., K.D. Sommerville and C.A. Offord. 2011. Effects of stratification and temperature on germination of high–altitude species from Kosciuszko National Park–Final Report to the Australian Flora Foundation, 23 May 2011. Available from aff.org.au/Martyn_Germina tion_Alpine_species_Final.pdf. (accessed on 27 August 2013)

Milbau, A., B.J. Graae, A. Shevtsova and I. Nijs. 2009. Effects of a warmer climate on seed germination in the subarctic. Annals of Botany 104 (2):287–296. 10.1093/aob/mcp117

Molles, M.C. Jr. 2002. Ecology: Concepts and applications (International ed.) New York: The McGraw–Hill Companies Inc, pp 586.

Mondoni. A., R. Probert, G. Rossi, F. Hay and C. Bonomi. 2008. Habitat–correlated seed germination behaviour in populations of wood anemone (Anemone nemerosa L.) from northern Italy. Seed Science Research 18 (4):213–222. 10.1017/S0960258508084997

Mondoni, A., R. Probert, G. Rossi and F. Hay. 2009. Habitat–related germination behaviour and emergence phenology in the woodland geophyte Anemone ranunculoides L. (Ranunculaceae) from northern Italy. Seed Science Research 19 (3): 137–144. 10.1017/S0960258509990067

Ooi, M.K.J., T.D. Auld, A.J. Denham. 2009. Climate change and bet–hedging: interactions between increased soil temperatures and seed bank persistence. Global Change Biology 15 (1): 2375–2386. 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.01887.x

Pickering, C.M., K. Green. 2009. Vascular plant distribution in relation to topography, soils and micro–climate at five GLORIA sites in the Snowy Mountains Australia. Australian Journal of Botany 57(3): 189–199. 10.1071/BT08133

Utteridge, T.M.A. 2000. The subalpine members of Pittosporum (Pittosporaceae) from Mt Jaya, New Guinea. Contributions to the Flora of Mt Jaya, II. Kew Bulletin 55 (3): 699–710. 10.2307/4118787

Venn, S.E. and J.W. Morgan. 2009. Patterns in alpine seedling emergence and establishment across a stress gradient of mountain summits in south–eastern Australia. Plant Ecology & Diversity 2 (1):5–16. 10.1080/17550870802691356

Walck, J.L., S.N. Hidayati, K.W. Dixon, K. Thompson, P. Poschlod. 2011. Climate change and plant regeneration from seed. Global Change Biology 17 (6): 2145–2161. 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02368.x




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14203/bkr.v18i1.153

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2015 Buletin Kebun Raya (The Botanic Gardens Bulletin)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Indexing Partners


    agora-journals.fao.org INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ORGANIZED RESEARCH (I2OR)ROAD DIRECTORYPKP INDEX
 
Jurnal Buletin Kebun Raya

Diterbitkan oleh (published by):
Pusat Konservasi Tumbuhan Kebun Raya (Center For Plant Conservation Botanic Gardens)
Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia (The Indonesian Institute of Sciences)
Alamat (address) : Pusat Konservasi Tumbuhan Kebun Raya-LIPI Jl. Ir. H. Juanda 13, Bogor 16003
Telepon (Phone) : (0251) 8322187
Email : buletin.pktkr.lipi@gmail.com
Website : http://krbogor.lipi.go.id

pISSN: 0125-961X

eISSN: 2460-1519